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McMurray J, Fraser DM. Captopril, enalapril and blood glucose. Lancet 1986; 1035. Maintenance: Oral, up to 40 mg a day thirty minutes before meals. Single daily doses are adequate with 15 mg or less but may be divided when necessary, while larger doses should be divided into two doses a day and taken thirty minutes before meals. Brazy JE, Pupkin MJ. Effects of maternal isoxsuprine administration on preterm infants. J Pediatr 1979 Mar; 444-8. propecia

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Your doctor will give you instructions about diet, exercise, how to test your blood sugar levels, and how to adjust your dose when you are sick. Occasionally, divided doses are administered, usually twice a day before the morning and evening meals, to improve gastrointestinal tolerance. Jacobs DS, DeMott WR, Strobel SL, et al. Chemistry. In: Jacobs DS, Kasten BL, DeMott WR, editors. Laboratory test handbook.

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Fagbemi SO, Chi L, Lucchesi BR. Antifibrillatory and profibrillatory actions of selected class I antiarrhythmic agents. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1993; 215: 709-19. Keep some kind of quick-acting sugar handy to treat low blood sugar. Koda-Kimble MA, Young LY, editors. Applied therapeutics: the clinical use of drugs. 5th ed. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics, Inc; 1992. Neuvonen PJ, Karkainen S. Effects of charcoal, sodium bicarbonate, and ammonium chloride on chlorpropamide kinetics. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1983; 33: 386-93. When patients are transferred to glipizide from another sulfonylurea antidiabetic medication with the exception of chlorpropamide no transition period is required. When transferring patients from chlorpropamide, caution should be exercised during the first 1 to 2 weeks because of the prolonged retention of chlorpropamide in the body.

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Gastric removal by administration of repeated doses of oral activated charcoal with appropriate cathartic, although the usefulness of this has not been established. Glipizide Glucotrol, Pfizer. In: PDR Physicians' desk reference. 52nd ed. 1998. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company; 1998. p. 2182-3. Endoscopic or combines upper endoscopy and examination to obtain images and information about various parts of the digestive tract. Why Do I Need an Endoscopy? Glyburide does not significantly cross the placenta according to an in vitro study using human placentas. Studies in humans have not been done. Use should be discontinued at least 2 weeks before the expected delivery date.



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First generation: Acetohexamide, chlorpropamide, tolazamide, tolbutamide. Endoscopy may also be used to treat a digestive tract problem. For example, the endoscope might not only detect active bleeding from an ulcer, but devices can be passed through the endoscope that can stop the bleeding. Micronized glyburide has an AB rating. However, some state formularies may not consider certain generic products bioequivalent when scored tablets are divided; state formularies should be checked before substituting one product for another. The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of the sulfonylurea antidiabetic medicines. Chlorpropamide seems to potentiate the effect of minimal concentrations of antidiuretic hormone present in patients with partial central diabetes insipidus. Chidester PD, Connito DJ. Interaction between glipizide and cyclosporine: report of two cases. Transplant Proc 1993 Apr; 252: 2136-7. This information is generalized and not intended as specific medical advice. Tucker HSG, Hirsch JL. Sulphonamide-sulphonylurea interaction. N Engl J Med 1972; 286: 110-1. Rapidly and well absorbed but may have wide inter- and intra-individual variability. Continue taking your sulfonylurea and try to stay on your regular meal plan. If you have trouble eating solid food, drink fruit juices, nondiet soft drinks, or clear soups, or eat small amounts of bland foods. A dietitian or your health care professional can give you a list of foods and the amounts to use for sick days. Niemi M, Kivisto KT, Backman JT, Neuvonen PJ. Effect of rifampicin on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of glimepiride. Upjohn under the same NDA; Greenstone's generic product is distributed by Geneva and Greenstone. Levaquin levofloxacin US prescribing information. Chlorpropamide Diabinese, Pfizer. In: PDR Physicians' desk reference. 52nd ed. 1998. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company; 1998. p. 2173-5. Your blood sugar may be increased or decreased, partly because the medicine may be removed from the body too fast or too slow. Until your thyroid condition is controlled, the amount of sulfonylurea you need may change. Davidson MB. Rational use of sulfonylureas. Postgrad Med 1992 Aug; 922: 69-81.



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JANUVIA is 50 mg once daily. Use is generally avoided. Safety and efficacy have not been established. Not commercially available in Canada. Rett K, Wicklmayr M, Dietz GJ. Hypoglycemia in hypertensive diabetic patients treated with sulfonylurea, biguanides, and captopril. N Engl J Med 1988; 319: 1609. This fetotoxicity, observed only at doses inducing maternal hypoglycemia, has been similarly noted with other sulfonylureas and is believed to be directly related to the hypoglycemic action of glimepiride. Being hospitalized if ketoacidosis or diabetic coma occurs with a possible change of treatment. Danazol Sanofi Winthrop. In: PDR Physicians' desk reference. 48th ed. 1994. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Data Production Company; 1994. p. 2092-3. Food and Drug Administration. WebMD does not endorse any specific product, service, or treatment. Segara FO, Sherman DS, Charif BS. Experiences with tolbutamide and chlorpropamide in tuberculous diabetic patients. Ann NY Acad Sci 1959; 74: 656-61. Haymond MW. Hypoglycemia in infants and children. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1989 Mar; 181: 211-53. Other supportive measures should also be employed as needed. If you miss a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses. An attempt to control diabetes through changes in diet and level of physical activity is usually first-line management before beginning pharmacologic treatment. Patients not responding adequately to diet alone or patients who require diet plus insulin, especially if they require 40 USP Units or less of insulin a day, may be candidates for therapy with a sulfonylurea as monotherapy or combination therapy. paxil



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Not recommended for use in patients with renal function impairment. Ferriere M, Lachkar H, Richard JL, et al. Captopril and insulin sensitivity. Ann Intern Med 1985; 102: 134-5. USP DI Volume III, Approved drug products and legal requirements. 18th ed. Rockville, MD: The United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc; 1998. Using an in vitro method and whole embryo mouse culture, one study compared growth differences between untreated embryos and those bathed in hypoglycemic and euglycemic chlorpropamide-treated rat serums. The teratologic evaluation of the treated early somite mouse embryos showed malformations and growth retardation at doses similar to human therapeutic concentrations, which suggested that the teratogenicity was due to chlorpropamide and not to hypoglycemia; untreated mouse embryos showed normal development. Patients with renal function impairment should receive an initial dose of 1 mg once a day. RxList is part of the WebMD Health Network. The opinions expressed in the WebMD User Reviews are solely those of the User, who may or may not have medical or scientific training, and do not represent the opinions of WebMD. These member reviews have not been reviewed by a WebMD physician or any member of the WebMD editorial staff for accuracy, balance, objectivity, or any other purpose except for compliance with our Terms and Conditions. High blood sugar hyperglycemia is another problem related to uncontrolled diabetes. Zilly W, Breimer DD, Richter E. Induction of drug metabolism in man after rifampicin treatment measured by increased hexobarbital and tolbutamide clearance. Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed. Be sure that any discarded medicine is out of the reach of children. Galloway JA, McMahon RE, Culp HW, et al. Metabolism, blood levels and rate of excretion of acetohexamide in human subjects. Diabetes 1967; 162: 118-27. Different people may feel different symptoms of low blood sugar. Genetic syndromes, including inborn errors of metabolism, such as glycogen-storage disease type I, or insulin-resistant syndromes, such as muscular dystrophies, late onset proximal myopathy, or Huntington's chorea. how to purchase baclofen baclofen



What is glipizide

Oral antidiabetic agents are not effective in type 1 juvenile-onset diabetes. Because type 2 diabetes occurs rarely in this age group, very little or no published pediatrics-specific information is available. Safety and efficacy have not been established. Renal Physiol Biochem 1994; 173-4: 118-20. If high blood sugar is not treated, it can cause serious problems, such as heart failure, blood vessel disease, eye disease, or kidney disease. During conversion from insulin therapy to acetohexamide therapy, no gradual dosage adjustment usually is required for patients using less than 20 USP Units of insulin daily. For patients using 20 or more USP Units daily, a 25 to 30% reduction in insulin every day or every second day with gradual dosage adjustment is advisable. Hospitalization for some patients on a higher insulin dosage may be required for uneventful conversion. Weiss J, Weiss J, Weiss B. Effects of iproniazid and similar compounds on the gastrointestinal tract. Ann NY Acad Sci 1959; 80: 854-9. In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345. Groop LC, DeFronzo RA, Luzi L, Melander A. Hyperglycaemia and absorption of sulphonylurea drugs. Lancet 1989 Jul; 1989; 129-30. Increasing your dose when you plan to eat an unusually large dinner, such as on holidays. This type of increase is called an anticipatory dose. target brand montelukast coupon



Highlights for glipizide

Initial: Oral, 100 mg once a day in the morning with breakfast or the first main meal, with the dose being changed by 100 to 250 mg at weekly intervals as needed. Specific carcinogenicity studies have not been done in animals; however, long-term toxicity studies have not shown any evidence of drug-related carcinogenicity. When adding a sulfonylurea to an insulin regimen that is poorly controlled with insulin alone, the insulin dose at times may be reduced by 25 to 50%. Combination use of insulin and sulfonylurea agents in patients with type 1 diabetes is controversial because many studies have indicated that sulfonylureas are not effective in the treatment of these patients. Fluconazole Diflucan, Roerig. In: PDR Physicians' desk reference. 48th ed. 1994. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Data Production Company; 1994. p. 1978-80. Pond SM, Birkett DJ, Wade DN. Mechanisms of inhibition of tolbutamide metabolism: phenylbutazone, oxyphenbutazone, sulfaphenazole. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1977; 225 Pt 1: 573-9. Salicylates, in large doses these medications have intrinsic hypoglycemic activity in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients, possibly severe with quinine, quinidine, or salicylates in high doses but unlikely with low doses of salicylates. Also, salicylates may interfere with chlorpropamide's renal excretion. Too much of a sulfonylurea can cause low blood sugar also called hypoglycemia. How this interaction occurs is not known. Kar RN, Mukherjee B, Mukherjee SK. Mutagenic evaluation of tolbutamide and glybenclamide on the bone marrow cells of mice. Toxicol Lett 1986; 342-3: 153-7. Actos pioglitazone hydrochloride US prescribing information. Takeda Pharmaceuticals Inc. November, 2013. McMurty RJ. Propranolol, hypoglycemia, and hypertensive crisis. Ann Intern Med 1974; 80: 669-70. Carry a recent prescription and your medical history. Be prepared for an emergency as you would normally. Make allowances for changing time zones, and keep your meal times as close as possible to your usual meal times. When patients are transferred to tolazamide from another sulfonylurea antidiabetic medication with the exception of chlorpropamide no transition period is required. When transferring patients from chlorpropamide, caution should be exercised during the first 1 to 2 weeks because of the prolonged retention of chlorpropamide in the body. Diabetes Care 1992; 158: 953-9.



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Wing LMH, Miners JO. Cotrimoxazole as an inhibitor of oxidative drug metabolism: effects of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole separately and combined on tolbutamide disposition. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1985; 20: 482-5. Chlorpropamide crosses the placenta. Sulfonylureas should not be used during pregnancy, especially when insulin is available. In the rare cases that a sulfonylurea is used, chlorpropamide and glipizide should be discontinued at least 1 month before delivery date and other sulfonylureas stopped at least 2 weeks before delivery date. Distributed into the milk of rats in significant concentrations. Offspring of rats exposed to high concentrations during pregnancy developed skeletal abnormalities after nursing. Not recommended for use by nursing mothers. Treating with immediate ingestion of a source of sugar, such as glucose gel, glucose tablets, fruit juice, corn syrup, nondiet soft drinks, honey, sugar cubes, or table sugar dissolved in water. A frequently used source of sugar is a glassful of orange juice. Combinations containing any of the following medications, depending on the amount present, may also interact with this medication. generic evista purchase shop canada



Managing with potassium supplements

Disulfiram-type reaction with concurrent alcohol use less likely with tolbutamide than with other antidiabetics. Also, displacement from plasma proteins by other medications is more likely than with nonionic sulfonylureas. However, the advice about hypoglycemia low blood sugar does apply to you. Call your doctor right away if you feel any of the symptoms described. Campbell DB, Lavielle R, Nathan C. The mode of action and clinical pharmacology of gliclazide: a review. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1991; S21-S36. Kishimoto M, Kawamori R, Kamada T, et al. Carbonyl reductase activity for acetohexamide in human erythrocytes. Drug Metab Dispos 1994 May-Jun; 223: 367-70. Judis J. Binding of sulfonylureas to serum proteins. J Pharm Sci 1972; 611: 89-93. Sulfonylurea antidiabetic agents also known as sulfonylureas are used to treat a certain type of diabetes mellitus sugar diabetes called type 2 diabetes. When you have type 2 diabetes, insulin is still being produced by your pancreas. Sometimes the amount of insulin you produce may not be enough or your body may not be using it properly and you may still need more. Sulfonylureas work by causing your pancreas to release more insulin into the blood stream. All of the cells in your body need insulin to help turn the food you eat into energy. This is done by using sugar or glucose in the blood as quick energy. Or the sugar may be stored in the form of fats, sugars, and proteins for use later, such as for energy between meals. Zheng HX, Huang Y, Frassetto LA, Benet LZ. Elucidating rifampin's inducing and inhibiting effects on glyburide pharmacokinetics and blood glucose in healthy volunteers: unmasking the differential effects of enzyme induction and transporter inhibition for a drug and its primary metabolite. Bouchard P, Sai P, Reach G, et al. Diabetes mellitus following pentamidine-induced hypoglycemia in humans. Diabetes 1982 Jan; 311: 40-5. dnif.info plavix



What should i avoid while taking glipizide

Klein W. Sulfonylurea-metformin-combination versus sulfonylurea-insulin-combination in secondary failures of sulfonylurea monotherapy. Results of a prospective randomized study in 50 patients. Diabete Metab 1991 May; 17 1 Pt 2: 235-40. Hoescht Marion Roussel produces DiaBeta and its own generic, which is distributed by Copley, under the same NDA. The following information includes only the average doses of these medicines. Johnstone BB. Diabetes mellitus in patients on lithium. Lancet 1977: 935-6. Wilkins; 1990. p. 208-9. Piacquadio K, Hollingsworth DR, Murphy H. Effects of in-utero exposure to oral hypoglycaemic drugs. Lancet 1991 Oct; 338: 866-9. Chlorpropamide: Chlorpropamide has been found to be distributed into breast milk at a concentration of 5 mcg per mL after 5 hours for a single 500-mg dose after 5 hours, blood concentration for a single dose of 250 mg chlorpropamide is 30 mcg per mL; therefore, its use during breast-feeding is not recommended. Its effect on the nursing infant is not known. duloxetine



JANUVIA is 50 mg once daily

Warren SE. False-positive urine ketone test with captopril. N Engl J Med 1980; 30317: 1003-4. Chlorpropamide and tolbutamide are distributed into human breast milk and potentially may cause hypoglycemia in the infant. Glimepiride is distributed into the milk of rats. It is not known whether acetohexamide, gliclazide, glipizide, glyburide, or tolazamide is distributed into breast milk. DICP, Ann Pharmacother 1990; 24: 1234-5. Alkalinization of urine with sodium bicarbonate to pH of 8 can eliminate 80% of chlorpropamide over 24 hours, but is not useful with other sulfonylureas. Caution with concurrent use with diazoxide treatment because of possible significant sodium retention. The number of tablets that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. You may sometimes notice what looks like a tablet in your stool. Do not worry. After you swallow the tablet, the medicine in the tablet is absorbed inside your body. Then the tablet passes into your stool without changing its shape. The medicine has entered your body and will work properly. Lower initial doses may be required in patients with medical problems that make them more sensitive to the effects of tolazamide. Glucagon is used in emergency situations such as unconsciousness. Sulfonylureas can make you more sensitive to the sun. Use of sunblock products that have a skin protection factor SPF of at least 15 on your skin and lips can help to prevent sunburn. Do not use a sunlamp or tanning bed or booth. May be preferred for those patients with moderate renal function impairment but should be discontinued with renal failure. Rado JP, Szende L, Marosi J, et al. Inhibition of the diuretic action of glibenclamide by clofibrate, carbamazepine and 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin DDAVP in patients with pituitary diabetes insipidus. Acta Diabetol Lat 1974; 11: 179. The United States pharmacopeia. The national formulary. USP 23rd revision January 1, 1995. NF 18th ed January 1, 1995. Rockville, MD: The United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc; 1995. p. 357, 1565. Rarely, some patients who take chlorpropamide may retain keep more body water than usual. This happens even less often with tolbutamide.



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Initial: Oral, 100 to 250 mg once a day with breakfast or the first main meal, with dosage being changed by 100 to 250 mg at weekly intervals as needed. Initial: Oral, 1 to 2 mg once a day with breakfast or the first main meal. Has mild antidiuretic activity. Burghen G, Pui CH, Yasuda K, et al. Decreased insulin binding and production: probable mechanism for hyperglycemia due to therapy with prednisone PRED and l-asparaginase ASP. Maintenance: Oral, 5 to 10 mg once a day with breakfast. Basler A, Baumann M, Rohrborn G. In vitro testing of chlorpropamide with human lymphocyte cultures in the presence of liver microsome fraction S9 mix of rats. Arzneimittelforschung 1982; 327: 724-6. Studies in rats given doses of tolbutamide that were 25 to 100 times greater than the human dose have shown teratogenic effects, such as ocular and bone abnormalities, and increased mortality in the offspring. Repeat studies in rabbits showed no teratogenic effects. Fluconazole severe hypoglycemia has been reported shortly after concurrent use of tolbutamide, glyburide, and glipizide with these oral azole antifungal agents. Remember that your doctor has prescribed this because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication not have serious side effects. Engl J Med 1989 Nov 2; 32118: 1231-45. Committee of Drugs, American Academy of Pediatrics. Transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics 1989; 845: 924-36. Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This especially includes nonprescription medicines, such as aspirin, and medicines for appetite control, asthma, colds, cough, hay fever, or sinus problems. mail order olmesartan payment otc



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Reid J, Lightbody TD. The insulin equivalence of salicylate. BMJ 1959; 1: 897-900. Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your or local waste disposal company. Patients sensitive to one of the sulfonylureas may be sensitive to the others also; cross-sensitivity to other sulfonamide- or thiazide-type medications may also occur. F unless otherwise specified by manufacturer. Store in a well-closed container. Kilpatrick ES, Rumley AG, Dominiczak MH, et al. Glycated haemoglobin values: problems in assessing blood glucose control in diabetes mellitus. BMJ 1994; 309: 983-6. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor. When adjusting the dose in the elderly, consider that steady-state concentrations for glipizide extended-release tablets may be delayed by approximately one or two days as compared to other age groups. Palmer KJ, Brogden RN. Gliclazide: an update of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Drugs 1993; 461: 92-125. Reaven GM, Fraze E, Chen NY, et al. The combined use of insulin and sulfonylurea therapy in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Horm Metab Res 1989; 21: 132-6. fludrocortisone price shoppers drug mart



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What are the possible side effects of glipizide

Niemi M, Backman JT, Neuvonen PJ. Effects of trimethoprim and rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of the cytochrome P450 2C8 substrate rosiglitazone. Pharmaceuticals, Inc. July, 2016. Keep all regular medical and laboratory appointments. Pharmaceutical, Inc. February, 2011. Glyburide Novo-Glyburide, Novopharm. In: Gillis MC, editor. CPS Compendium of pharmaceuticals and specialties. 33rd ed. Ottawa: Canadian Pharmacists Association; 1998. p. 1170.

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Monitoring vital signs, arterial blood gases, blood glucose, and serum electrolytes especially calcium, potassium, and sodium as required. Initially, blood glucose concentrations should be monitored as frequently as every 1 to 3 hours. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine concentrations should also be obtained. Less weight gain when compared to other sulfonylureas. Ped Res 1981; 15: 626. Avoid too much sun. Swallow tablet whole. Do not break, crush, or chew.

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Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, editors. Goodman and Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York: Pergamon Press; 1990. p. 1463-95. Petitpierre B, Perrin L, Rudhardt M, et al. Behaviour of chlorpropamide in renal insufficiency and under the effects of associated drug therapy. Int J Clin Pharmacol 1972; 6: 120. The use of sulfonylurea antidiabetic agents has been reported, but not proven in all studies, to increase the risk of death from heart and blood vessel disease. Patients with diabetes are already more likely to have these problems if they do not control their blood sugar. Some sulfonylureas, such as glyburide and gliclazide, can have a positive effect on heart and blood vessel disease. It is important to know that problems can occur, but it is also not known if other sulfonylureas, particularly tolbutamide, help to cause these problems. It is known that if blood sugar is not controlled, such problems can occur.

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Symptoms of high include thirst, increased urination, confusion, drowsiness, flushing, rapid breathing, and fruity breath odor. If these symptoms occur, tell your doctor right away. Your dosage may need to be increased. United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study Group. United Kingdom prospective diabetes study UKPDS 13: relative efficacy of randomly allocated diet, sulphonylurea, insulin, or metformin in patients with newly diagnosed non-insulin dependent diabetes followed for three years. BMJ 1995 Jan 14; 310: 83-8. There is little information about the use of sulfonylureas in children. Type 2 diabetes is unusual in this age group.

Sulfonylureas lower blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes by directly stimulating the acute release of insulin from functioning beta cells of pancreatic islet tissue by an unknown process that involves a sulfonylurea receptor on the beta cell. Sulfonylureas inhibit the ATP-potassium channels on the beta cell membrane and potassium efflux, which results in depolarization and calcium influx, calcium-calmodulin binding, kinase activation, and release of insulin-containing granules by exocytosis, an effect similar to that of glucose. Insulin is a hormone that lowers blood glucose and controls the storage and metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Sulfonylureas are effective only in patients whose pancreata are capable of producing insulin.

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